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Paolo Pelosi?, Immacolata Iovinella?, Jiao Zhu, Guirong Wang?, Francesca R.. Beyond chemoreception: diverse tasks of soluble olfactory proteins in insects. Biological Reciews. doi: 10.1111/brv.12339

       来源:1zplay电竞比分网 点击数: 次      发布时间:2017-12-06

Abstract
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are regarded as carriers of pheromones and odorants in insect chemoreception. These proteins are typically located in antennae, mouth organs and other chemosensory structures; however, members of both classes of proteins have been detected recently in other parts of the body and various functions have been proposed. The best studied of these non-sensory tasks is performed in pheromone glands, whereOBPs and CSPs solubilise hydrophobic semiochemicals and assist their controlled release into
the environment. In some cases the same proteins are expressed in antennae and pheromone glands, thus performing a dual role in receiving and broadcasting the same chemical message. Several reports have described OBPs and CSPs in reproductive organs. Some of these proteins are male specific and are transferred to females during mating. They likely carry semiochemicals with different proposed roles, from inhibiting other males from approaching mated females, to marking fertilized eggs, but further experimental evidence is still needed. Before being discovered in insects, the presence of binding proteins in pheromone glands and reproductive organs was widely reported in mammals, where vertebrate OBPs, structurally different from OBPs of insects and belonging to the lipocalin superfamily, are abundant in rodent urine, pig saliva and vaginal discharge of the hamster, as well as in the seminal fluid of rabbits. In at least four cases CSPs have been reported to promote development and regeneration: in embryo maturation in the honeybee, limb regeneration in the cockroach, ecdysis in larvae of fire ants and in promoting phase shift in locusts. Both OBPs and CSPs are also important in nutrition as solubilisers of lipids and other essential components of the diet. Particularly interesting is the affinity for carotenoids of CSPs abundantly secreted in the proboscis of moths and butterflies and the occurrence of the same (or very similar CSPs) in the eyes of the same insects. A role as a carrier of visual pigments for these proteins in insects parallels that of retinol-binding protein in vertebrates, a lipocalin structurally related to OBPs of vertebrates. Other functions of OBPs and CSPs include anti-inflammatory action in haematophagous insects, resistance to insecticides and eggshell formation. Such multiplicity of roles and the high success of both classes of proteins in being adapted to different situations is likely related to their stable scaffolding determining excellent stability to temperature, proteolysis and denaturing agents. The wide versatility of both OBPs and CSPs in nature has suggested several different uses for these proteins in biotechnological applications, from biosensors for odours to scavengers for pollutants and controlled releasers of chemicals in the environment.